eLibrary Version 2 (October 2021)

The purpose of this eLibrary is to provide a background for an urgent campaign to prevent the Brazilian government passing legislation that would further degrade the Amazon rainforest. Please look for more information at the site

and sign their Global letter.

The list is not intended to be exhaustive. For readers new to the field, we recommend reading the Abstract and Conclusion first, before deciding whether to invest further in a specific piece. All the pieces are free-online. However, some items have been republished in Academia Edu [AE] and Research Gate [RG]. These can be accessed simply by registering at each (once only).

Abdala, G.C. (2015) The Brazilian Amazon: challenges facing an effective policy to curb deforestation. Brasília, Living Amazon Initiative, WWF Brazil

Amazon Watch (2019) Complicity in Destruction II: How Northern Consumers and Financiers Enable Bolsonaro’s Assault on the Brazilian Amazon

Amazon Watch (2020) Complicity in Destruction III. How Global Corporations enable the violation of Indigenous Rights in the Brazilian Amazon 

Area Leão Pereira, E.J. de, e.a. (2019) ‘Policy in Brazil (2016–2019) threaten conservation of the Amazon rainforest’, Environmental Science and Policy, 100, 8-12.

Articulation of Indigenous Peoples of Brazil (2021) International Complaints Dossier of Brazil’s Indigenous Peoples

Baragwanath, K. and Bayi, E. (2020) ‘Collective property rights reduce deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon’, PNAS

Banerjee, O. e.a. (2021) An Amazon Tipping Point: The Economic and Environmental Fallout, Inter – American Development Bank

Barosso, L.R. and Mello, P.P.C. (2021) ‘In Defense of the Amazon Forest: The Role of Law and Courts’, Harvard International Law Journal

Barosso, L.R. and Mello, P.P.C.(2021) How To Save The Amazon: The Reasons Why a Living Forest is Worth More than a Cut-Down One, Carr Center Discussion Paper

Begossi A., e.a. (2018) ‘Fish consumption on the Amazon: a review of biodiversity, hydropower and food security issuesBrazilian Journal of Biology, 79, 2.

Beuchle, R. e.a. (2021) Deforestation and forest degradation in the Amazon, European Union

Bolle, M. de (2019) The Amazon Is a Carbon Bomb: How Can Brazil and the World Work Together to Avoid Setting It Off? PIIE Policy Brief

Cardil, A., e.a. (2020) ‘Recent deforestation drove the spike in Amazonian firesEnvironmental Research Letters, 15

Castello, L and Macedo, M.N. (2016) ‘Large-scale degradation of Amazonian freshwater ecosystems’, Global Change Biology, 22, 990-1007

Carvalho, S., e.a. (2020) ‘A changing Amazon rainforest: Historical trends and future projections under post-Paris climate scenarios’, Global and Planetary Change 195

Carvalho, W.D., e.a. (2019) ‘Deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon: A conservation struggle being lost as agreements and regulations are subverted and bypassed’, Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, 17, 3, 122-130

Crespo-Lopez, M.E., e.a. (2021) ‘Mercury: What can we learn from the Amazon?’, Environmental International, 146

Cruz, D.C. da, e.a. (202i) ‘An overview of forest loss and restoration in the Brazilian Amazon’, New Forests, 52, 1-16

Ellwanger, J.H., e.a. (2020) ‘Beyond diversity loss and climate change: Impacts of Amazon deforestation on infectious diseases and public health’, Annals of Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 92, 1 

FAO (2015) Transboundary River Basin Overview – Amazon

Fearnside, P.M. (2017) ‘Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon’ in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science [RG]

Fearnside, P.M. (2021) ‘The intrinsic value of Amazon biodiversity’, Biodiversity and Conservation, 30, 1199-1202

Ferreira, F.V. e.a. (2021)  ‘Deforestation in the Legal Amazon: The Impacts of Human Action on the Regional Climate Scenario’, Research Square, Prepublication

Filho, A.C.  and de Souza, O.B. (2009) ATLAS of Pressures and Threats to Indigenous Lands in the Brazilian Amazon

Galvis, R. (2018) The Amazon Biome in the Face of Mercury Contamination. An overview of mercury trade, science, and policy in the Amazonian countries

Gatti, L.V., e.a. (2021) ‘Amazonia as a carbon source linked to deforestation and climate change’, Nature

GreenPeace (2009) Slaughtering the Amazon

GreenPeace (2021) How JBS is still Slaughtering the Amazon

Guimarães, J-R.D., (2020) ‘Mercury in the Amazon’, Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 8, 1 [RG]

Heinrich, V.H.A., e.a. (2021) ‘Large carbon sink potential of secondary forests in the Brazilian Amazon to mitigate climate change’, Nature Communications, 12

Human Rights Watch (2019) Rainforest Mafias. How Violence and Impunity Fuel Deforestation in Brazil’s Amazon

Human Rights Watch (2021) Crisis in the Brazilian Amazon

IPAM (2017) A Pathway to Zero Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

Jaffé, R., e.a. (2021) ‘Forecasting deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon to prioritize conservation efforts’, Environmental Research Letters, 16,8,

Junior, C.H.L.C., e.a.  (2021) ‘The Brazilian Amazon deforestation rate in 2020 is the greatest of the decade’, Nature, Ecology and Evolution, 5

Kleinschmit, D., Ferraz Ziegert, R. and Walther, L. (2021) ‘Framing Illegal Logging and Its Governance Responses in Brazil – A Structured Review of Diagnosis and Prognosis’ Fronters in Forest and Global Change

Kruid, S., e.a. (2021) ‘Beyond Deforestation: Carbon Emissions From Land Grabbing and Forest Degradation in the Brazilian Amazon’, Fronters in Forest and Global Change

Margulis, S. (2004) Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon, World Bank Working Paper 22

Marango, J.A., e.a. (2011) ‘Climate change in the Amazon Basin: Tipping points, changes in extremes, and impacts on natural and human systems’ in Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change [RG]

Marango, J.A. and Souza, C. (2018) Climate Change: impacts and scenarios for the Amazon

Marango, J.A. e.a. (2018) ‘Changes in Climate and Land Use Over the Amazon Region: Current and Future Variability and Trends’, Frontiers in Earth Science

Montibeller, B., e.a. (2020) ‘Increasing fragmentation of forest cover in Brazil’s Legal Amazon from 2001 to 2017Nature

Müller, C. (2020) Brazil and the Amazon Rainforest Deforestation, Biodiversity and Cooperation with the EU and International Forums, European Parliament

Nobre, C.A., e.a. (2016) ‘Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm’, PNAS

Nobre, C.A. and Nobre, I. (2020) ‘The Need of a Novel Sustainable Development Paradigm for the AmazonBoletim Regional, Urbano e Ambiental 

OECD (2021) Evaluating Brazil’s progress in implementing Environmental Performance Review recommendations and promoting its alignment with OECD core acquis on the environment

Ometto, J.P., Aguiar, A.P.D. and  Martinelli, L.A. (2011) ‘Amazon deforestation in Brazil: effects, drivers and challenges’, Carbon Management, 2, 5, 575–585. [RG]

Perez. R. (2021) ‘Deforestation the Brazilian Amazon Under Jair Bolsonaro’s Reign: A Growing Ecological Disaster and How It May Be ReducedUniversity of Miami InterAmerican Law Review, 52, 2.

Piotrowski, M. (2019) Nearing the Tipping Point. Drivers of Deforestation in the Amazon Region.

Qin, Y., e.a. (2021) ‘Carbon loss from forest degradation exceeds that from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon’, Nature Climate Change, 11, 442-448.

RECEIL (2021) Special Issue on the Amazon. 30, 2, 155-193 (Revue of European, Camparative and International Law)

Risso, M., e.a. (2021) Illegal Gold That Undermines Forests and Lives in the Amazon: an overview of irregular mining and its impacts on Indigenous populations, IGARAPÉ Strategic Paper, 53

Rosa, I.M.D., Gabriel, C. and Carrieras, J.M.B. (2017) ‘Spatial and temporal dimensions of landscape fragmentation across the Brazilian AmazonReg Environ Change

Ruiz Agudelo, C.A., e.a. (2020) ‘Land use planning in the Amazon basin: challenges from resilience thinking’, Ecology and Society, 25, 1

Sathler, D. e.a. (2018) ‘Deforestation and local sustainable development in Brazilian Legal Amazonia: an exploratory analysis’, Ecology and Society, 23, 2.

Setzer, J. and de Carvalho, D.W. (2021) ‘Climate litigation to protect the Brazilian Amazon: Establishing a constitutional right to a stable climate’, Review of European, International and Comparative Law

Silva Junior, C.H.L. e.a. (2021) ‘The Brazilian Amazon deforestation rate in 2020 is the greatest of the decade’, Nature Ecology and Evolution, 5, 144-145.

Siqueira-Gay, J., e.a. (2020) ‘Pathways to positive scenarios for the Amazon forest’, Biota Neotropica, 20 

Siqueira-Gay, J. and Luis E. Sánchez (2020) ‘The outbreak of illegal gold mining in the Brazilian Amazon boosts deforestation’, Regional Environmental Change, 21.

Sonter, L., e.a. (2018) ‘Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon’, Nature Communications, 8, 1. [RG]

Spaniol, R., e.a. (2020) ‘Discolouring the Amazon Rainforest: how deforestation is affecting butterfly coloration’, Biodiversity and Conservation, 29, 11

Staal, A., e.a. (2020) ‘Feedback between drought and deforestation in the AmazonEnvironmental Research Letters, 15

Walker, W,S. e.a. (2020) ‘The role of forest conversion, degradation, and disturbance in the carbon dynamics of Amazon indigenous territories and protected areas’, PNAS, 117, 6, 3015-3025,

Wegner, R.C. and Fernandes, M.P. (2018) ‘The Amazon and the Internationalisation of Chinese Companies’, Contexto International, 40, 2.

Wittman F. and Junk, W.J. (2016) ‘The Amazon River Basin’ in C.M. Finlayson e.a. (eds) The Wetland Book [RG]

WWF (2014) Deforestation Fronts in the Amazon Region: Current Situation and Future Trends. A preliminary summaryWWF (2018) Healthy Rivers, Healthy People.  Addressing the Mercury Crisis in the Amazon