eLibrary THE ARCTIC Version 2.0 (September 2021)

The purpose of this eLibrary is to introduce scientific research and debate on a range of themes concerning the impact of climate change on the Arctic. The list is not intended to be exhaustive. For readers new to the field, we recommend reading the Abstract and Conclusion first, before deciding whether to invest further in a specific piece. All the pieces are free-online. However, some items have been republished in Academia Edu [AE] and Research Gate [RG]. These can be accessed simply by registering at each (once only).

Government Position Papers 

2011 DENMARK Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands: Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011– 2020

2011 NORWAY The Norwegian Government’s High North Strategy (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

2011 ICELAND Ísland á norðurslóðum

2012 RUSSIA Strategy on the Development of Russian Seaport Infrastructure Till 2030

2013 USA National Strategy for the Arctic Region

2013 UNITED KINGDOM Adapting to Change. UK policy towards the Arctic

2015 ITALY Towards an Italian Strategy for the Arctic National Guidelines. Strategia Del Governo Italiano Per L’Artico (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

2015 CANADA Canada’s Northern Strategy: Our North, Our Heritage, Our Future

2016 EUROPEAN UNION An integrated European Union policy for the Arctic, ( European Commission, High Representative Of The Union For Foreign Affairs And Security Policy, Joint Communication To The European Parliament and The Council)  

2017 CANADA Statement on Canada’s Arctic Foreign Policy Exercising Sovereignty And Promoting Canada’s Northern Strategy Abroad

2018 CHINA China’s Arctic Policy

2018 UNITED KINGDOM Beyond the ice: UK policy towards the Arctic

2019 EUROPEAN UNION, Council Conclusions on the EU Arctic policy

NEW 2020 EUROPEAN UNION A Balanced Arctic Policy for the EU, Directorate General for External Policies of the Union

2020 ICELAND Greenland and Iceland in the New Arctic Recommendations of the Greenland Committee Appointed by the Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Development Co-operation

NEW 2020 Sweden’s strategy for the Arctic region

2020 RUSSIA Основные принципы государственной политики Российской Федерации в Арктике до 2035 года

NEW 2021 ARCTIC COUNCIL  Arctic Council Strategic Plan 2021 to 2030

NEW 2021 FINLAND Finland’s Strategy for Arctic Policy

NEW 2021 NETHERLANDS The Netherlands’ Polar Strategy 2021-2025. Prepared for Change

2021 NORWAY The Norwegian Government’s Arctic Policy. People, opportunities and Norwegian interests in the Arctic (Abstract)


NEW Allsop, M., e.a. (2012) Climate Change Impacts on Arctic Wildlife, Greenpeace technical review

NEW AMAP (2017) Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo

NEW AMAP (2021) Arctic Climate Change Update 2021: Key Trends and Impacts. Summary for Policy-makers Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo

NEW Anthony, I., Klimenko, E. and Su, F. (2021) A Strategic Triangle in The Arctic? Implications of China–Russia–United States Power Dynamics for Regional Security, SIPRI Insights on Peace and Security 2021/3

Arctic Council (2013) Ecosystem-Based Management in the Arctic, Report submitted to Senior Arctic Officials by the Expert Group on Ecosystem-Based Management May 2013

Arctic Council (2021) Underwater Noise Pollution from Shipping in the Arctic

Ametistova L.E., Knizhnikov A. Yu. (2016) Environmental Aspects of Arctic LNG Projects Development. WWF Analytical Report

Arnold, S.R. e.a. (2016) ‘Arctic air pollution: Challenges and opportunities for the next decade’, Elementa, 

NEW Aronsson, M., e.a. (2021) State of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Report. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland.

Balton, D. e.a. (2019) Policy and Action on Plastic in the Arctic Ocean, Harvard

Bennet, M.M. (2020) ‘Climate Change and the Opening of the Transpolar Sea Route: Logistics, Governance, and Wider Geo-economic, Societal and Environmental Impacts’ in K. Spohr and D.S. Hamilton (eds) The Arctic and the World Order, Brookings

NEW Biedermann, R. (2021) ‘China’s impact on the European Union’s Arctic policy: critical junctures, crossovers, and geographic shifts’, Asia Europe Journal

Blackwell S.B., e.a. (2015) ‘Effects of Airgun Sounds on Bowhead Whale Calling Rates: Evidence for Two Behavioral Thresholds’, PLoS ONE 10(6) 

Buixadé Farré, et al., (2014) ‘Commercial Arctic shipping through the Northeast Passage: routes, resources, governance, technology, and infrastructure’, Polar Geography, 37:4, 298-324. Online, 

NEW CAFF (2015) Arctic Species Trend Index: Migratory Birds Index, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland.

CAFF (2017), State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity Report, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. Online,

CAFF (2017) Arctic Invasive Alien Species. Strategy and Action Plan 2017 

NEW CAFF (2021) State of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity: Key Findings and Advice for Monitoring. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland

NEW CAFF (2021) Mainstreaming Biodiversity In Arctic Mining. Progress Report. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland

Callaghan, T.V. e.a. (2004) ‘Effects on the Function of Arctic Ecosystems in the Short- and Long-term Perspectives’, Ambio, 33, 7, 448-458.

NEW Clear Seas ‘Black Carbon in the Arctic: What You Need to Know’, Clear Seas Blog 10.8.2021

NEW Congressional Research Service (2021) Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Coulson, S.J.  (2015) ‘The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna’, Polar Research, 34, 1

NEW Dalaklis, D., e.a. (2017) ‘Protecting theArctic Environment: Challenges and Opportunities for Liquefied Natural Gas’ in P. Chaumette (ed) Economic challenge and new maritime risks management: What blue growth? Challenge économiqueet maîtrise des nouveaux risques maritimes: Quelle croissance bleue [RG]

NEW Davidson, S.C., e.a. (2020) ‘Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic’, Science, 370, 712-715. [RG]

NEW Dickie, G. (2021) ‘Arctic biodiversity at risk as world overshoots climate planetary boundary’, MONGABAY, 29.4.2021.

Dobricic, S. and Pozzoli, L. (2019) Arctic permafrost thawing Impacts on high latitude emissions of carbon dioxide and methane, European Union

NEW Doshi, R., Dale-Huang, A. and Zhang, G. (2021) Northern Expedition. China’s Arctic Activities and Ambitions, Brookings

NEW Dunham, K.D. e.a. (2021) ‘Demographic responses to climate change in a threatened Arctic species’, Ecology and Evolution, 11, 15, 10627-10643.

Dushkova D., Krasovskaya, T. and Evseev, A. (2017) ‘Environmental & Human Impact of the Northern Sea Route and Industrial Development in Russia’s Arctic Zone‘ Arctic Yearbook [RG]

NEW Ershova, E.A., e.a. (2021) ‘Sea ice decline drives biogeographical shifts of key Calanus species in the central Arctic Ocean’, Global Change Biology

Fedorov, V. e.a.  (2020) ‘The Northern Sea Route: problems and prospects of development of transport route in the Arctic’ IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science [RG]

Fisheries and Oceans, Canada (2019) Canada’s Oceans Now: Arctic Ecosystems,

NEW Frainer, A. e.a. (2021) ‘Increased functional diversity warns of ecological transition in the Arctic’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B

Hauser, D.D.W., Laidre, K.L. and Stern, H.L. (2018) ‘Vulnerability of Arctic marine mammals to vessel traffic in the increasingly ice-free Northwest Passage and Northern Sea Route’ PNAS

Heide-Jørgensen, M.D. et al., (2013) Narwhals and seismic exploration: Is seismic noise increasing the risk of ice entrapments?, Biological Conservation 158: 50-54. 

NEW Heininen, L., e.a. (2020) Arctic Policies and Strategies — Analysis, Synthesis, and Trends, IIASA

Hjort, J., et al. (2018) ‘Degrading permafrost puts Arctic infrastructure at risk by mid-century’, Nature Communications 9, 5147. Online, 

Ivanova, S.V. (2020) ‘Shipping alters the movement and behavior of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), a keystone fish in Arctic marine ecosystems’ Ecological Applications, 30, 3

Ji, X., Abakumov, E.and Polyakov, V. (2019)  ‘Assessments of pollution status and human health risk of heavy metals in permafrost-affected soils and lichens: A case-study in Yamal Peninsula, Russia Arctic’ Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 25. [RG]

Kirdyanov, A.V. (2020) ‘Ecological and conceptual consequences of Arctic pollution’, Ecology Letters, 23-12, 1827-1837.

Koivurova, T. e.a. (2019), China in the Arctic; and the Opportunities and Challenges for Chinese- Finnish Arctic Co-operation, Publications of the Government ́s analysis, assessment and research activities 8/2019, Prime Minister’s Office. 

Kosek, K. and Ruman, M. (2021) ‘Arctic Freshwater Environment Altered by the Accumulation of Commonly Determined and Potentially New POPs’, Water, 13.

Law, K.S.e.a. (2017) ‘Local Arctic air pollution: Sources and impacts’, Ambio, 46, 453-463.

Logerwell, E. and Skjoldal, H.R. (2019), Guidelines for Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Management of Arctic Marine Ecosystems, PAME, Arctic Council. 

NEW Loukacheva, N. (ed) (2015) Polar Law and Resources, Norden

Malgorzata Smieszek (2019), Informal International Regimes. A Case Study of the Arctic Council, Rovaniemi. 

NEW Magnússon, R.I., e.a. (2020) ‘Rapid Vegetation Succession and Coupled Permafrost Dynamics in Arctic Thaw Ponds in the Siberian Lowland Tundra’, BioGeosciences

NEW Masloboev, V. (2021) Climate Change Challenges for Mining Industry in the Arctic, Russian Academy of Sciences

NEW Matsui, H. and Liu, M. (2021) ‘Importance of Supersaturation in Arctic Black Carbon Simulations’, Journal of Climate, 34, 19.

NEW McCarty, J.L. e.a. (2021) ‘Reviews & Syntheses: Arctic Fire Regimes and Emissions in the 21st 2 Century’, Biogeosciences, Preprint

Meltofte, H. (ed.) (2013) Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Akureyri

NEW Niemi, A., e.a. (2019) State of Canada’s Arctic Seas, Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3344

NEW Nittynen, P., Heikkinen, R.K. and Luoto, M. (2020) ‘Decreasing snow cover alters functional composition and diversity of Arctic tundra’, PNAS

NEW Overland, I., e.a. (2021) ‘The Arctic Environmental Responsibility Index: A method to rank heterogenous extractive industry companies for governance purposes’, Business Strategies and the Environment, 30, 4, 1623-1643.

PAME (2019), Underwater Noise in the Arctic: A State of Knowledge Report, Roveniemi. 

NEW Pederson, A.O. e.a. (2021) Norwegian Arctic Tundra: a Panel-based Assessment of Ecosystem Condition Norweigan Polar Institute, Report 153.

Petäjä, T.e.a. (2020) ‘Overview: Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments (iCUPE) – concept and initial results’, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20, 8551-8592.

NEW Quinn, P.K., e.a. (2011) The Impact of Black Carbon on Arctic Climate, AMAP

NEW Richter-Menge, J., e.a.  (2020) ‘State of the Climate in 2019 the Arctic’ The Arctic. Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society, 101, 8, 239-S286.

Johnsen, K.I. e.a. (eds) (2010) Protecting Arctic Biodiversity. Limitations and Strengths of Environmental Agreements, UNEP

Riley, T. and Hollich, S. (2018) The Arctic: Anthropogenic Noise, Shipping, Impact on Marine Mammals, & Future Management. Bibliography NOAA, Wahshington.

Schröeder, C., Riemer, N. and Jochmann, P. (2017) ‘Environmental impact of exhaust emissions by Arctic shipping’, Ambio, 400-409

Schwalbe, D.M. (2015) The Yamal LNG Project and the Nenets Reindeer Nomads Impacts, Survival and Indigenous Opposition to Gas Exploitation in Russia’s Arctic Koln.

NEW Seethy, K.M. (2021) ‘The Contours of India’s Arctic Policy’, Economic and Political Weekly, 56, 20

Southall, B.L. e.a. (2020) ‘Seasonal trends in underwater ambient noise near St. Lawrence Island and the Bering Strait’, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 157.

Streletskiy, D.,  Anisimov O. and Vasiliev, A. ‘Permafrost Degradation’ in W. Haeberli, C. Whiteman and J. F. Shroder Jr (eds) Snow and Ice-Related Hazards, Risks and Disasters, 303-334. [RG]

NEW Tepes, P., Nienow, P. and Gourmelen, N. (2021) ‘Accelerating Ice Mass Loss Across Arctic Russia in Response to Atmospheric Warming, Sea Ice Decline, and Atlantification of the Eurasian Arctic Shelf SeasGeophysical Research Letters

NEW Thoman, R.L., Richter-Menge, J. and Druckenmiller, M.N. (eds) (2020) Arctic Report Card, NOAA

Toyoshima. J. (2020) Marine Plastic Pollution in the Arctic, OPTI Perspectives, 10.

UNEP (2015)  Policy Implications of Warming Permafrost

Vihtakari, M., Welcker, J., Moe, B. e.a. (2018) ‘Black-legged kittiwakes as messengers of Atlantification in the Arctic’. Sci Rep 8

NEW Winiger, P., e.a. (2019) ‘Source apportionment of circum-Arctic atmospheric black carbon from isotopes and modeling’, Science Advances, 5, 2.

Word, J.Q. (2014) Environmental Impacts of Arctic Oil Spills and Arctic Spill Response Technologies. Literature Review and Recommendations

WWF (2015) Valuing Arctic Ecosystems and Biodiversity, Special Issue of ‘The Circle’

NEW WWF (2021) A Guide to Arcnet: An Arctic Ocean Network of Priority Areas for Conservation

NEW Young, O.R. (2019) ‘Is It Time for a Reset in Arctic Governance?Sustainability, 11, 16,

Zhang, Q., Wan, Z. and Fu, S. (2020) ‘Toward Sustainable Arctic Shipping: Perspectives from China’, Sustainability