eLibrary: Amazonia. Version 1.0 (September 2021)


The purpose of this eLibrary is to provide a background for an urgent campaign to prevent the Brazilian government passing legislation that would further degrade the Amazon rainforest. Please look for more information at the site:


and sign their Global letter.

This eLibrary has been quickly assembled to offer some insights into the issues involved. The list is not intended to be exhaustive. For readers new to the field, we recommend reading the Abstract and Conclusion first, before deciding whether to invest further in a specific piece. All the pieces are free-online. However, some items have been republished in Academia Edu [AE] and Research Gate [RG]. These can be accessed simply by registering at each (once only).



Abdala, G.C. (2015) The Brazilian Amazon: challenges facing an effective policy to curb deforestation. Brasília, Living Amazon Initiative, WWF Brazil

Amazon Watch (2020) Complicity in Destruction III. How Global Corporations enable the violation of Indigenous Rights in the Brazilian Amazon

Area Leão Pereira, E.J. de, e.a. (2019) ‘Policy in Brazil (2016–2019) threaten conservation of the Amazon rainforest’, Environmental Science and Policy, 100, 8-12.

Articulation of Indigenous Peoples of Brazil (2021) International Complaints Dossier of Brazil’s Indigenous Peoples

Banerjee, O. e.a. (2021) An Amazon Tipping Point: The Economic and Environmental Fallout, Inter – American Development Bank

Barosso, L.R. and Mello, P.P.C. (2021) ‘In Defense of the Amazon Forest: The Role of Law and Courts’, Harvard International Law Journal,

Biolle, M. de (2019) The Amazon Is a Carbon Bomb: How Can Brazil and the World Work Together to Avoid Setting It Off? PIIE Policy Brief

Beuchle, R. e.a. (2021) Deforestation and forest degradation in the Amazon, European Union

Carvalho, S., e.a. (2020) ‘A changing Amazon rainforest: Historical trends and future projections under post-Paris climate scenarios’, Global and Planetary Change 195

Carvalho, W.D., e.a. (2019) ‘Deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon: A conservation struggle being lost as agreements and regulations are subverted and bypassed’, Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation, 17, 3, 122-130

Cruz, D.C. da, e.a. (202i) ‘An overview of forest loss and restoration in the Brazilian Amazon’, New Forests, 52, 1-16

Ellwanger, J.H., e.a. (2020) ‘Beyond diversity loss and climate change: Impacts of Amazon deforestation on infectious diseases and public health’, Annals of Brazilian Academy of Sciences, 92, 1

Fearnside, P.M. (2021) ‘The intrinsic value of Amazon biodiversity’, Biodiversity and Conservation, 30, 1199-1202

Ferreira, F.V. e.a. (2021)  ‘Deforestation in the Legal Amazon: The Impacts of Human Action on the Regional Climate Scenario’, Research Square, Prepublication

Filho, A.C.  and de Souza, O.B. (2009) ATLAS of Pressures and Threats to Indigenous Lands in the Brazilian Amazon

Heinrich, V.H.A., e.a. (2021) ‘Large carbon sink potential of secondary forests in the Brazilian Amazon to mitigate climate change’, Nature Communications, 12

Human Rights Watch (2021) Crisis in the Brazilian Amazon

Jaffé, R., e.a. (2021) ‘Forecasting deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon to prioritize conservation efforts’, Environmental Research Letters, 16,8,

Montibeller, B., e.a. (2020) ‘Increasing fragmentation of forest cover in Brazil’s Legal Amazon from 2001 to 2017Nature

Müller, C. (2020) Brazil and the Amazon Rainforest Deforestation, Biodiversity and Cooperation with the EU and International Forums, European Parliament

OECD (2021) Evaluating Brazil’s progress in implementing Environmental Performance Review recommendations and promoting its alignment with OECD core acquis on the environment

Ometto, J.P., Aguiar, A.P.D. and  Martinelli, L.A. (2011) ‘Amazon deforestation in Brazil: effects, drivers and challenges’, Carbon Management, 2, 5, 575–585. [RG]

Qin, Y., e.a. (2021) ‘Carbon loss from forest degradation exceeds that from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon’, Nature Climate Change, 11, 442-448.

Rosa, I.M.D., Gabriel, C. and Carrieras, J.M.B. (2017) ‘Spatial and temporal dimensions of landscape fragmentation across the Brazilian AmazonReg Environ Change

Setzer, J. and de Carvalho, D.W. (2021) ‘Climate litigation to protect the Brazilian Amazon: Establishing a constitutional right to a stable climate’, Review of European, International and Comparative Law

Silva Junior, C.H.L. e.a. (2021) ‘The Brazilian Amazon deforestation rate in 2020 is the greatest of the decade’, Nature Ecology and Evolution, 5, 144-145.

Siqueira-Gay, J., e.a. (2020) ‘Pathways to positive scenarios for the Amazon forest’, Biota Neotropica, 20

Staal, A., e.a. (2020) ‘Feedback between drought and deforestation in the AmazonEnvironmental Research Letters, 15

Walker, W,S. e.a. (2020) ‘The role of forest conversion, degradation, and disturbance in the carbon dynamics of Amazon indigenous territories and protected areas’, PNAS, 117, 6, 3015-3025,